Introduction to Organizational Behaviour
Organizations are the grand strategies created to bring order to a concerted effort for the achievement of certain objectives and goals. Since these objectives cannot be achieved by an individual or a small group of individuals, there are in the notion of the organization the concepts of division of labour, hierarchy of authority etc. Since an individual cannot achieve the objectives of an organization, it is necessary that many people be harnessed in the pursuit of an organization. However, in order that their efforts are meaningful they be tied in a meaningful relationship. This is achieved by creating the structure. The people in a structure work with the help of technology. In a typical organization, therefore, there is a constant interaction between people, structure, and technology.
In order that this relationship bears fruits, every organization contains a blue print of human behaviour at work. The organizational rules, regulations, and procedures represent this. As it is, human behaviour is complicated enough. Added to it are structure and technology. Together, these three facets make understanding of the human behaviour at work complex. Furthermore, of all the inputs of an organization the people are the most important of all. While there can be a definite ratio of input to output when it comes to other inanimate factors of production, in the case of human beings there cannot be any such fixed ratio. This human element if handled properly by the manager, two plus two can equal five. Or else it can be three. It is therefore necessary for the manager not only to understand human behaviour properly but also to harness that understanding for the good of the organization. It is a fact that no manager can be much more efficient than the sum of the efficiencies of the people working with him. It, therefore, becomes necessary for him to study human behavior within the context of an organization, having understood it try to predict the human behavior and having predicted it try to control it.
In the present day India the industrial scene has under gone tremendous change. The Indian Govt., until the last decade of the last century protected the Indian industry from foreign competition. The Government which drove out Coca-Cola in seventies, in 1992 threw open the economy to the multinationals. The multinationals which came on the Indian scene enjoyed superior resources in terms of money, technology as well as market network. With a view to facing the challenges posed by the multinationals a sea change in the attitudes of all those in a particular organization was a must. The responsibility to do this fell squarely on the shoulders of every manager. It called for the knowledge of the human behaviour at work. Also these days the composition of the workforce has undergone tremendous change. The industrial worker of today is more educated than his counterpart some ten or fifteen years before. The mix of the skills has also changed. If a manager desires to be effective he must understand the behavioural angularities of the employees.